Anatomy of the Heart
Physiology of the Heart
Blood Groups
Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System

Anatomy of the Heartheart#2.jpg

Chambers of the Heart.

The Heart Structures:

  • Right and Left atria: make up the top portion of the heart, are receiving chambers of blood from the veins, the atria contract and force blood to the ventricles.
  • Right and left ventricles: receive blood from the atria and contract to force blood through arteries. From the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery and from the left ventricle to the aorta.
  • Septum: lengthwise membrane that divides the heart. Between the atria it is called the interatrial septum and between the ventricles its called the interventricular septum.
  • Bicuspid(Mitral)Valve: It separates the left atrium from the left ventricle.It opens to allow the oxygentanted blood collected in the left atrium to flow into the left ventricle.
  • Tricuspid Valve: It separtes the right atrium from the right ventricle.It opens to allow de-oxygenated blood collected in the right atrium into the right ventricle.
  • Aortic Semilunar Valve:Is situated at the beginnging of the aorta.This valve has three delicate cusps,or pockets,which permit blood flow only in one direction.
  • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve:located at the beginning of the pulmonary artery.It has the same role as the Aortic semilunar valve.
  • Superior Vena Cava: One of the two main veins bringing de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart.Veins from the head and upper body feed into the superior vena cava,which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
  • Inferior Vena Cava: veins bringing de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart.Veins from the legs and lower torso feed into inferior vena cava,which empties into the right atrium of th heart.
  • Aorta:It carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricles ti the various parts of the body.
  • Pulmonary Arteries:transporting de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricles to lungs
  • Pulmonary Veins:Vessel transporting oxygen-rich blood fom the lungs to the left atrium

The Double Pumpdouble_circ.jpg

The human heart is a vital organ used to pump blood and deliver oxygen to the body’s cells. The heart is made up of two sides, each containing an atrium and a ventricle. One side contains oxygenated blood while the other contains deoxygenated blood. The two sides of the heart are separated by a thick wall called the septum. The septum is very important because without it the deoxygenated blood and oxygenated blood would mix causing the body’s cells to suffer and die because they would not receive an adequate amount of oxygen. The heart acts as double pump because the first pump carries deoxygenated blood to your lungs where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen and the now oxygenated blood is delivered back to your heart. The second pump takes this oxygenated blood and pumps it to the rest of the body’s cells.

  • Pump#1 Controls pulmonary circulation,which brings blood to and from the lungs.
  • Pump#2 controls systemic circulation,which carries blood throughout the body and back to the heart..
  • see pumps in action

The Pumping Heart

The heart pumps in a very efficent way. Deoxygenated blood must return to the heart from the body tissues and flow through the inferior and superior vena cava. Then the inferior and superior vena cava delivers the blood to the right atrium. The right atrium contracts therefore causing the blood to be pumped into the right ventricle. When the right atrium contracts, a valve called the tricuspid valve closes off the right atrium to prevent blood from flowing back into the atrium when the right ventricle contracts. As the right ventricle a contract, blood is pumped into the pulmonary trunk that divides it into the left and right pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary semilunar valve closes just as the right ventricle finishes contracting. This valve prevents the blood from flowing back into the ventricle as it relaxes. The pulmonary arteries then carry the deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs where carbon dioxide is exchanged from oxygen. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. As the left atrium contracts, blood is pumped into the left ventricle. The bicuspid valve closes when the left atrium stops contracting. This valve prevents the blood from flowing back into the atrium when the left ventricle contracts. As the left ventricle contracts, the oxygenated blood is pumped into the aorta. This blood will be delivered to the body tissues. The aortic semilunar valve will close when the left ventricle finishes contracting. This prevents blood from flowing back into the ventricle as it relaxes. The coronary arteries that branch off the aorta will deliver oxygenated blood to the heart tissue. Then the cardiac veins will carry the deoxygenated blood from the heart tissue to the right atrium where the blood will collect with the deoxygenated blood returning from the body tissues. *When the ventricles contract it is in systole, when the ventricles relax they are in diastole*
See the Heart in action:Flow

Physiology of the Heart

Contains 2 systems:
.The nerves of the nervous system act to decrease and increase heart rate in response to environmental changes.
2.The intrinsic conduction system (nodal system) built into the cardiac muscle tissue conduct electrical impulses to trigger the ventricles and atria to contract.

Intrinsic Conduction System:

Contains 4 major parts:
. Sinoatrial (SA) node: tissue located on the right atrium which starts each heartbeat and sets the pace for the whole heart
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: tissue located at the junction of the atria and ventricles
3. Atrioventricular (AV) bundle: groups of fiber located on the interventricular system
4. Purkinje Fibers: spread throughout the muscle of the ventricle walls

For a heart to contract, the electrical impulse first starts at the SA node (which will set the pace for the heartbeat) then moves down to the AV node causing the atria to contract. When the electrical impulse reaches the AV node it is delayed in order for the blood from atria to collect into ventricles. After the blood has been collected into ventricle, the impulse moves down to the AV bundle which disperses the impulse to the Purkinje fibers and the ventricles contract.

Electrocardiography (EKG)EKG.jpg

An electrocardiogram is a test that measures the electrical activity of the heartbeat. When the heart beats, an electrical impulse travels through the heart as a wave. This wave can be recorded on an EKG. The EKG has 3 parts:
  1. P-wave: first wave, signals depolarization of the atria
  2. QRS-wave: signals depolarization of ventricles
  3. T-wave : second wave, signals repolarization of the ventricles


Blood Groups

Three blood vessels.

Arteries: blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body
Veins: one of the systems of branching vessels or tubes conveying blood from various parts of the body to the heart.
Capillaries: one of the minute blood vessels between the termination of the arteries and the beginning of the veins.


is the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells. It is normally about 48% for men and 38% for women.It is considered an integral part of a person's complete blood count results, along with hemoglobin concentration,white blood cells count, and platelet count.

cells that transport oxygen contains hemoglobin

Leukocytes(WBC’S) cells that aid the body’s immune system

Platelets: cell fragments that function in blood clotting.


is the development of blood cells that begins in the red blood marrow of the bones.
The rate of blood cell formation is controlled by the hormone erythropoietin.
The rate of white blood cell fromation is controlled by hormones called colony stimulating factors.
The rate of platelet production is controlled by hormones called interleukins.


is the process that results in blood clotting when walls of blood vessel break.
1). First platelets plug forms
2) Then vascular spasms occur
3) coagulation sticky substance forms.

See Homeostasis in action​​​​​​​​​


(agglutinogens) genetically determined proteins that mark each person’s blood in a unique way.
(If an antigen other than your own enters your body, the body recognizes it as foreign and triggers the immune system to release antibodies against it)


(agglutinins) proteins contained in the blood plasma which identify foreign antigens and alert the immune system.

(Once identified, antibodies bind to the foreign blood cells and cause them to clump, a process called agglutination.)


Blood Donors and Recipiants

When blood is donated the reciever must have a certain blood type that donor has or else aggulatination could occur. For example if someone with AB- blood needs a transfusion they could recieve blood from a donor with O-, B-, A- and AB- beacuse O- contains niether the A or B antigen and the A and B antigens present in the other blood types would not attack the AB- recipiants blood. Also the donated blood then must be RH - because the recipiant has no RH anitgens present and therefore the blood he/she recieves needs to be RH -.

The Universial Recipiant is AB blood type since they already have the A and B antigens and therefore no aggulationation could occur from foreign antigens.

The Universial Donor is O type blood because it does not contain the A or the B anitgens and therefore cannot attach the recipiants blood.

Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular diseases are the world's largest killers, claiming 17.1 million lives a year. Tobacco use, an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alchohol can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.


Atherosclerosis is when the inner walls of arteries become more narrow due to a build-up of plaque (fats, cholosterol, calcium, ect.). This plaque can grow large enough that it can reduce the blood flow throught an artery. If this plaque grows too large it can block a blood vessel that feeds the heart and cause a heart attack or can block a blood vessel going to the brain which would cause a stroke. Both can be fatal.

Rheumatic Heart Diseaseheart_disease.jpg

Rheumatic Heart Disease is when the heart valves are damaged and weakened by rheumatic fever. Rhematic fever is caused by the common bacterial infection called Strep Throat. When strep throat goes untreated the bacterial produces an chemical that causes the heart valves to be damageda and weakened.


Arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm that is usually caused by an electrical dysfunction of the heart. An arrhythmia can cause a beating heart to beat too fast(tachycardia), too slow(bradycardia) or just irregular. This can lead to many symtoms including fatigue, dizziness and chest pain. Arrhythmia is caused when electrical signals flowing throught the heart don't communicate properly with the heart muscle.


Dilated cardiomyopathy-
This is the most common and affects the hearts main pumping chamber. The left ventricle becomes enlarged and pumping becomes less forceful which means blood does not flow as easily through the heart. This disease occurs most often in middle aged men.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-
This involves an abnormal growth of thicking of your heart muscle. As this thicking occurs, the heart stiffens and the size of pumping chamber may shrink causing less blood to be pumped into the heart.

Restrictive cardiomyopathy-
The heart muscle becomes ridgid and less elastic which means the heart can't properly expand and fill with blood between each heartbeat. It tends to affect older people.
End stage of Cardiomyopathy


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